CRM


Institutions in charge of migration issues

Interesting documents:

Background:

A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada's paramount political problem is meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services after a decade of budget cuts. The issue of reconciling Quebec's francophone heritage with the majority anglophone Canadian population has moved to the back burner in recent years; support for separatism abated after the Quebec government's referendum on independence failed to pass in October of 1995.


Currency:

Canadian dollar (CAD)

Currency code:

CAD

Exchange rates:

1 US dollar = 0.96 Canadian dollars


Geography

Location:

Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates:

60 00 N, 95 00 W

Area:

Total: 9,984,670 sq km
Land: 9,093,507 sq km
Water: 891,163 sq km

Area - comparative:

Somewhat larger than the US

Land boundaries:

Total: 8,893 km
Border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline:

202,080 km

Climate:

Varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north


Terrain:

Mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:

Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources:

Iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

Natural hazards:

Continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

Geography - note:

Second-largest country in world (after Russia).


People

Population:

34,108,752 (2010 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 18.2% (male 3,038,800; female 2,890,579)
15-64 years: 68.7% (male 11,225,686; female 11,111,941)
65 years and over: 13% (male 1,807,472; female 2,433,396) (2004 est.)

Median age:

Total: 38.2 years
Male: 37.2 years
Female: 39.2 years (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:

5.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Nationality:

Noun: Canadian(s)
Adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups:

British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%

Religions:

Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 36%, other 18%
Note: based on the 1991 census

Languages:

English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%

Literacy:

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97% (1986 est.)


Government

Country name:

Canada

Government type:

Confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital:

Ottawa

Administrative divisions:

10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence:

1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (independence recognized)

National holiday:

Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution:

17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system:

Based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails.

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October 1999)
Head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 December 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 December 2003)
Cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch:

Bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve for up to five-year terms)
Elections: House of Commons - last held 28 June 2004 (next to be held by NA 2009)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 36.7%, Conservative Party 29.6%, New Democratic Party 15.7%, Bloc Quebecois 12.4%, Greens 4.3%, independents 0.4%, other 0.9%; seats by party - Liberal Party 134, Conservative Party 99, Bloc Quebecois 54, New Democratic Party 19, independent 2

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)

International organization participation:

ACCT, AfDB, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MICAH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC

Flag description:

Two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white

Economy

Economy - overview:

As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. As a result of the close cross-border relationship, the economic sluggishness in the United States in 2001-02 had a negative impact on the Canadian economy. Real growth averaged nearly 3% during 1993-2000, but declined in 2001, with moderate recovery in 2002-03.

Agriculture - products:

Wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Industries:

Transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Exports - commodities:

Motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners:

US 86.6%, Japan 2.1%, UK 1.4% (2003)

Imports - commodities:

Machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners:

US 60.6%, China 5.6%, Japan 4.1% (2003)

Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:

$36.27 billion (2003)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:

19,950,900 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

13,221,800 (2003)

Telephone system:

General assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
Domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
International: country code - 1-xxx; 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:

80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code:

.ca

Transportation

Railways:

Total: 48,909 km

Highways:

Total: 1,408,800 km
Paved: 497,306 km (including 16,900 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 911,494 km (2002)

Waterways:

631 km
Note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2003)

Pipelines:

Crude and refined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:

Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Airports:

1,357 (2003 est.)

Heliports:

12 (2003 est.)



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