Institutions in charge of migration issues:
Official name: United Mexican States
Mexico is located on the North American continent, along with Canada and the United States of America, west of the Greenwich Meridian.
As to geographical coordinates, the national territory is located between meridians 118º 27’ 24 W, from the Baja California coasts in the Pacific Ocean on the West to 86º 42’ 36 W at the most eastern point, touching Islas de las Mujeres in the Caribbean Sea; and between parallels 32º 43’ 06 N to the north, bordering the United States of America, and 14º 32’ 27 N to the south, at the mouth of Suchiate River, bordering Guatemala.
Borders: Mexico has to the north a 3,152 km border with the United States of America, and to the Southeast a joint border stretching 1,149 km with Guatemala and Belize. The length of its continental coasts is 11,122 km, second to Canada in North America.
Due to its geographical position, shape, weather, orography and geology, the Mexican Republic has a wide variety of ecological conditions unique in the world. These conditions have resulted in rich soil and diversity in vegetation involving practically all known species.
Mexico also has land areas in which vegetation is hardly found, as in the driest areas of the desserts or in areas of perpetual snow. In contrast, there are abundant forests with trees as high as 40 mts with annual rainfall exceeding 4,000 mm. Among these extremes, there is a wide variety of areas with extensive and diverse underbrush, pasture, conifer and oak trees in almost every mountain system, palm groves, forests with different foliage, extensive wetlands in the South and on both coasts, and pioneering vegetable communities in the coastal dunes, among many others.
Government: Federal Democratic Representative Republic.
Head of State and Government: Lic. Enrique Peña Nieto, President of the Republic
Administrative Division: 32 States, including the Federal District. Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Coahuila, Colima, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatán and Zacatecas.
Capital City: Mexico City, Federal District.
Territorial Expanse: Mexico has a territorial extension of 1,964,375 square kilometers; 5,127 square kilometers are islands. Its Exclusive Economic Zone of territorial sea is 3,149,920 square kilometers. The total surface of the country is 5,114,295 square kilometers.
Languages: Due to its history, Spanish and some indigenous languages are valid throughout the country. Besides Spanish, more than fifty indigenous languages are spoken of which the main ones are: Náhuatl, Maya, Zapoteco and Mixteco.
Religion: The Constitution guarantees religious freedom. A majority of the population is Catholic.
Currency: Mexican Peso (N$) is divided into 100 cents, with denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 pesos.
Independence Day: September 15, 1810
Weather: Mexico’s geographical situation, latitude, altitude, and relation to the land and sea, provide the country with great weather diversity which is even more marked owing to the special topographical characteristics of the national territory. Thus, instead of two types of weather (temperate or torrid), there are five types of thermal regimens: warm, semi- warm, mild, semi-cold and cold.